Tools Used in the Construction of the Great Pyramid
- The quarrying methods used to remove stones such as granite and limestone from the ground are still under study, according to Donald Redford, professor of Classics and ancient Mediterranean studies at Penn State University. Professor Redford told Science Daily there was some evidence that copper chisels were used to quarry sandstone and limestone and that a hard black igneous rock, formed through molten eruptions, was used as a tool to remove granite from the Aswan quarries. King Khufu's chamber was made entirely from Aswan granite.
- Scholars believe that wooden and bronze levers were used to manoeuvre the individual stone blocks into position on the pyramid. This theory was put forward because the Egyptian didn't use cranes, according to Egyptian archaeology author and lecturer, Ian Shaw. Levers enable people to lift heavy weights with a lesser amount of effort.
- No remnants of the drilling equipment used to cut and prepare the boulders used in the pyramid's construction still exist. Egyptologists can only speculate, but one theory is that copper alloy saws were used in pyramid construction. Quartz sand may have been poured in between the cutting edge of the saw and the granite to strengthen and preserve the saws, which would otherwise have worn away quite quickly.
- Professor Redmond notes that ramps were used to position the stones on the pyramid. The ramps, in the absence of heavy machinery, made the process of moving the stones relatively easy. They were constructed of mud brick and coated with plaster to harden the surface, making them safer for the construction teams.