The Blueprint of Humanity: Exploring the DNA and Its Various Aspects
It is the carrier of the genetic information that has been passed down and diversified from generations onwards.
Every cell on our body, except our red blood cells has DNA on them.
When upon conception, both man and woman provide DNA.
The father offers 23 chromosomes and the mother also offers 23.
This will compose the nuclear chromosome.
They all reside inside the nucleus of cells except of course, of the red blood cells.
Of these chromosomes, the 23rd is called the sex chromosome.
For a mother, the sex chromosome will always be an X.
the father may either offer an X or Y chromosome that will determine the sex characteristics and gender of the conceived child.
XX means the child is a girl and XY is a boy.
Now, there is another thing that a child will inherit but only from the mother and that is the mitochondrial DNA which is positioned outside the Nucleus of each cell.
Now we need to understand what DNA is composed of.
Each DNA will have 4 bases.
The bases are Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine and Thymine.
Now, they follow a certain order and this is like the code that differentiates each individual and it is called the DNA sequence.
If a certain base is on one side, it will have a complementary base that is on the other side.
Thymine and Adenine are always paired and that is the same with Guanine and Cytosine.
Now, when talking about genetic genealogy, there are two forms of the DNA that can be considered as essential when conducting a research on family trees and origins.
These are the mitochondrial DNA that only came from the mother and the Y chromosome that is passed on by the father.
The Y chromosome is passed only from father to son and when this is used for genealogy research, you can find information regarding the direct mail line.
When testing them, there are certain locations used and they are known as markers.
In some instances, there will be mutations on one of the markers.
These are simple changes in the sequence.
They are very natural and they happen randomly.
It was said that this happens every 500 generations.
This is a key aspect when determining the branching of the family tree.
The Mitochondrial DNA is passed on both sons and daughters so genealogy testing can be done on both male and female using the mitochondrial DNA.