Genital warts are flat, fleshy, pedunculated and papular growth on mucosal cells of genital areas.
It is caused by human papillomavirus.
HPV virus has the tendency to penetrate in the mucosal and skin cells through the abrasions and once inside the body, it can stay latent for many years and would show no signs of existence.
It is very dangerous as it is this virus is transmitted sexually, skin to skin contact with the infected partner.
Genital warts are diagnosed by visual inspection and confirmed by biopsy.
However if it is latent then no symptoms can be seen and partner having sex can transfer it to the other person as well.
Vulnerability of acquiring the disease is not too much but the virus can be transmitted without either of the partners knowing about it.
Symptoms for genital warts are very clear as they occur in the form of small or large aggregated masses in the genital regions like vagina, cervix, uterus, anus, scrotum and penis.
Sometimes they are also found in mouth, lips or throat wherein the person has had oral sex with the infected partner.
It might be easy to get rid of the genital warts but it is very difficult to remove the Human papilloma virus from the body and hence even after treatment, genital warts have a tendency to come back.
Treatment of genital warts includes use of topical immune response creams or solutions including imiquimod, podophyllin, podofilox, 5-fluorouracil and tricholoroacetic acid.
There are many side affects of using these chemicals like podophyllin, fluorouracil and podofilox can lead to birth defects in pregnant ladies.
There are several herbal treatments available as well like use of sinecatechins or polyphenon.
It is an extraction containing catechines from green tea.
At times treatment is not needed for genital warts and they disappear on their own.
Getting rid of small genital warts can be done by liquid nitrogen cryosurgery, electrocautery or pulsed dye laser treatment.
Rarely surgery is suggested where there is no sign of improvement.
Re-occurring genital warts can be treated by infusing antiviral drug interferon-alpha.
Modern techniques using DNA sensitivity have proved to be useful to suppress and to some extent clear the virus from the body.
Traditional treatments used these days make the patient immunocompromised and the warts tend to become ulcerated or may bleed.
Hence the diagnosis and treatment should be done with full precautions.