Besides the railing, a stairs includes three elements: treads, risers, as well as stringers.
Treads are the horizontal steps.
Risers would be the vertical boards which connect the front of one tread to the back of the tread below it.
Stringers would be the diagonal, sawtooth-shaped boards that support the entire framework.
The size as well as number of each element will needless to say be determined by the height and width of the stairs to your deck.
Many deck stairs leave out risers entirely, in what is referred to as an open stair case. In case the steps are low and wide enough, a handrail isn't required. However without stringers and treads, you don't have stairs.
Pre-cut stringers can be acquired at many lumberyards, but it's definitely possible (and cheaper) to make your own.
The best wood to get a stringer is often a 2" x 12" plank mainly because it offers the best structural stability.
To create a stringer, cut standard diagonal notches in the wood to suit the treads. The notches must not be at exact forty-five degree angles. That's since your treads ought to be greater as compared with your risers are high.
Examine building requirements in your area, nevertheless a standard guideline is that treads can't be narrower than 9 in ., while risers are not to be greater than 8 in .. One more thing to bear in mind is that at their narrowest point, the stringers must be at the very least 3 1/2 inches wide.
The most effective way to assure your step notches are even would be to cut a smaller piece of wood in order to use as a template. Simply cut a short, rectangular plank that's your ideal tread width on two sides, together with your required riser height on the other 2 sides. Line up the opposite corners along the edge of your stringer board to follow the lines where you'll have to cut.
The foot of this stringer will naturally have to be exactly parallel to the lines where your treads will go. Lay it out in a way as to maximize the amount of wood that will make contact with the ground.
Be sure all your lines are traced BEFORE you start cutting.
Just how many stringers you'll need is determined by the width of the stairs. You'll require, at minimum, a stringer along both sides of the stairs. In case the stairs are more than the usual few feet wide, you'll also need 1 down the middle. For extra-wide steps, you'll want a stringer roughly every three feet of width.
The stringers will naturally need to be solidly attached at both ends before installing the treads. To add the stringers to the deck framework, it's a good idea to make use of either wood screws as well as special mounting brackets designed for the purpose. Nails can work loose as time passes, specifically as folks pass over the steps and their load adjusts.
Should you decide to connect your stringers to deck posts rather than the deck frame, there's an even more sensible choice: drill holes through the post as well as the stringer and connect them using heavy-duty carriage bolts with large washers. Use two of those for each stringer.
When it comes to underside of your stringers, they cannot simply rest on the dirt; they should be attached to something solid. This could be either a concrete slab, or concrete footings set into the ground. Preferably, footing bolts should be inserted into the concrete while it's still wet, that will assist you to mount footing mounting brackets to which you could anchor the stringers.
When your stairs go to a second-floor deck, it's best if you affix support posts to the tops of the stringers. These posts should be moored solidly to the ground, and linked to the stringers making use of carriage bolts. An additional set of support posts connected to the staircase's midpoint will prove to add even further muscle and solidity.
One you have the stringers up, the hard part has ended. If you want your stairway to have risers, this is the time to install them. That's simply because it's much simpler to drive screws or nails horizontally through them into the stringers before the treads are in position.
Risers could be cut from wood 1 inch in thickness, for the reason that they don't serve a structural function.
The most important thing to keep in mind is to cut all of them the same length as well as width, due to the fact the template you utilized in order to cut the stringers will make sure that the notches are the exact same size. Also, it's preferable to cut them a millimeter too small than a millimeter too wide. If perhaps they're too wide, the treads will rest partially on them rather than squarely on the stringer, that can result in squeakiness along with instability. Should you want an open stair case with no risers, skip ahead to the treads.
Each step can be cut from one wide piece of wood, or from two narrower pieces. It's permissible and even common for the tread to have a slight overhang past the front of the riser immediately below it, but if that overhang is more than an inch it's likely to trip people up. When attaching the treads to the stringers, wood screws or spiral nails are your best option, to stop having them work their way loose over time.
The easiest way to install a railing is to attach the vertical rail posts to the stringers. Rather than nails or screws, it's better to drill holes and use heavy-duty carriage bolts with wide washers to attach them. If the weight of a full-grown human hits your railing for whatever reason, it needs to hold.
These are meant to be basic recommendations for building a stairway for your deck. Building codes might differ locally, therefore you should definitely check.
More Information at: Deck Design or at Deck Railing Design