Population: 42.8 million
Urban population: 15.2 million
Nationalities: Han, Hui, Miao, She and Yao Area: 160,000 square kilometers Local Weather:
Climatic features: subtropical, humid, monsoonal climate; plum rains in spring; rainstorms in summer; autumn droughts; cold waves in winter
Average temperature: 3oC to 9oC in January, 27oC to 31oC in July
Annual average rainfall: 1,200 - 1,900 mm; high precipitation in the northeast; half of the annual rain falls from April to June
Physical features: hills and mountains in the south gradually slope toward Poyang Lake in the north; the Ganjiang River Valley is a plain bordered by hills to the east and west.
Mountains: Mufu, Jiuling, and Luoxiao Mountains along the western border; Nanling Mountains in the south; Wuyi Mountains in the east
Rivers and lake: the Ganjiang-Poyang drainage system covers most of the province and empties into the Yangtze River, which coincides with part of Jiangxi's northern border; Poyang Lake, 3,583 square kilometers, China's largest fresh water lake
Products: rice, wheat, corn, potatoes, millet, rape, sugar cane, tea, peanuts, soybeans, sesame; cotton, ramie, jute, silk cocoons; tea oil; timber; oranges, pomelos, lotus seeds; common carp, silver carp, black carp, bighead; wolfram, copper, coal; ceramics
Administrative divisions: 12 cities and 77 counties
Neighboring areas: Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Hunan, Hubei, and Anhui Provinces
Major cities: Nanchang, Jiujiang, Ganzhou, Jingdezhen, Ji'an, Ruijin
Tourist attractions: Mount Lushan, by Poyang Lake; Jingdezhen, an ancient town known as the"capital of ceramics"
Topography and geomorphology:The topographies of Jiangxi are dominated by mountainous and hilly land, with mountains covering 36% of the province's total territory, hills, 42%. The remaining 22% is composed of plains and waters. Most of its mountains lie on the provincial borders. Mount Huaiyu in the northeast has the province's largest copper reserve; Wuyi Mountain, a World Cultural Heritage site, lies in the eastern part; the Dageng Ridge and Jiulian Mountain in the south are known as the "capital of tungsten"; in the west there is the Luoxiao Mountain; and in the northwest lie the mountains of Mufu and Jiuling.
Climate:Jiangxi's annual average temperature is around 18째C. Temperatures in the northeastern and northwestern areas and that along the Yangtze River are lower than other parts of the province, ranging from 16째C to 17째C. The other parts of the province are warmer, with temperatures ranging from 18째C-20째C.
Jiangxi has plentiful rainfall. The average annual rainfalls range between 1,341 mm and 1,940 mm. Precipitation is richer in its southern, eastern and mountainous regions and less in the northern, western and basin areas. The average annual rainfall in the mountains of Wuyi, Huaiyu and Jiuling can be as high as 1,800-2,000 mm while that of the area along the Yangtze River and the Poyang Lake and the Jitai Basin is between 1,350 mm and 1,400 mm. The other parts of the province have average annual rainfalls of 1,500-1,700 mm.
Natural resources: Jiangxi has abundant mineral resources. Of the 150 known minerals, more than 140 have been found in Jiangxi. Among these, the deposits of 89 have been verified, with 33 of them ranking among the top fives of the country. Ferrous metals in Jiangxi include iron, manganese, titanium and vanadium. Among the 13 non-ferrous and precious metals are copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver. There are also 29 rare and rare-earth minerals, such as niobium and tantalum. The province has developed the largest copper mine in Asia and its copper smelting base is the largest in China.
59% of Jiangxi's territory is covered with forest. Its timber reserve amounts to 250 million cubic meters, in addition to 1 billion plants of bamboo, both figures taking leading positions in the country. Most of the forests in the province belong to natural secondary forests. Coniferous forests occupy a larger proportion, with pine and masson pine being the major species. Tea-oil tree, tung tree and Chinese tallow tree are the major economic species scattering across the province.
The province boasts more than 4,000 species of seed plants, some 470 types of pteridophyte and over 100 types of bryophyte. Among the low plants, the varieties of large fungus alone are as many as 500. There are more than 2,000 species of woody plants, including over 400 kinds of arbor. Jiangxi is also home to many ancient trees, such as ginkgo, known as the "living fossil" of plants.
The good ecological environment characterized with rich water resource, changing topographies and wide coverage of vegetation ensures Jiangxi's abundance in wildlife. The 30 nature reserves cover a total area of 9,016 square km, accounting for 5.4% of the province's territory.
Jiangxi now has over 600 kinds of vertebrates, including over 170 species of fish which account for 21.4% of the national total of freshwater fish. There are more than 40 species of amphibious animals, accounting for 20.4% of the national total; some 70 species of reptiles, accounting for 23.5% of the country; 270 species of birds, accounting for 23.2%; and 50 species of beasts, accounting for 13.3% of the nation's total.
Fish and birds, large in number of species, have great economic value and therefore have the priority for protection. Poyang Lake presents an ideal winter shelter for migratory birds.
Jiangxi boasts more than 2,400 rivers and streams, some 160 of which, totaling 18,400 km in length, having water running all year round. Ganjiang, Fuhe, Xinjiang, Xiuhe and Raohe are the five largest rivers in the province. Jiangxi's total water reserve is 150.5 billion cubic meters, with the per capita figure standing at 3,491 cubic meters, 1,393 cubic meters more than the national average. The annual rainfall in 2005 totaled 1,661 millimeters, an increase of 16.1% from the year before. The total water storage in 253 reservoirs of the province amounted to 9.15 billion cubic meters at the year-end. The yearly consumption of water stood at 20.805 billion cubic meters, at a rate of 10.5%.
Tourism resources: Jiangxi has beautiful landscapes with green mountains and clear waters. The major scenic spots include: Mount Lushan, Jinggang Mountain, Longhu (Dragon and Tiger) Mountain, Sanqing Mountain, Poyang Lake, and the cities of Nanchang and Jingdezhen.
Mount Lushan has been listed as a World Heritage site by the UNESCO. Together with Jinggang and Sanqing mountains, it offers charming peaks and quiet valleys.
Guifeng Peak and Dragon Palace are noted for their precipitous cliffs and deep caves. The landscapes of Poyang Lake and Ganjiang River are attractive while ancient temples at Longhu Mountain, Qingyuan and Donglin attract visitors with unique religious architectures.
Other scenic attractions or sites of historical interest include Tengwang Tower, Bajing Terrace, the former residences of historical nobilities in Linchuan and Jiujiang, headquarters of the Red Army on Jinggang Mountain, Memorial Museum of Nanchang Uprising and Ruijin, the first capital of the Communist administration in China.
The northern Jiangxi triangle tourism zone comprising Nanchang, Lushan Mountain, Jiujiang, Poyang Lake and Longhu Mountain is one of the 14 major international tour routes in China. The province has 11 cultural relics put under state protection and 2,406 of its scenic spots or tourism areas have been registered as major provincial projects.